Anderson Oliveira began his Brazil national team career at the u-17 level. He played with the team at the South American u-17 Championship. Anderson Oliveira then featured with the same u-17 team at the 2005 edition of the FIFA u-17 World Cup in the Peruvian capital of Lima. The midfielder emerged as the best player at the tournament in Lima as Brazil had to settle for second place. Anderson and his Brazilian teammates were beaten 3-0 in the final by Mexico who were able to win their first FIFA-organised tournament. Ex-Arsenal star Carlos Vela scored one of the goals as Mexico run riot at the expense of the Brazilians.
Brazil were in danger of getting eliminated at the group stage of the tournament in Lima on the back of their opening match defeat against Gambia. Anderson proved to be the catalyst for the Brazilian team as they bounced back from the defeat to the Gambians to progress beyond the group stage and into the knockout stage.
He was the go-to man for Brazil as they reached the final, but the midfielder lasted for just 15 minutes after he picked up an injury and was stretchered off. His absence was keenly felt against the Mexicans who scored three goals on the way to winning the final and the tournament as a result.
Anderson made his Brazil senior team debut as a second half substitute during the 2-0 loss to Mexico at the 2007 Copa America tournament. His first start came in the same tournament during the 3-0 win over Chile. In addition to the 2007 Copa America tournament, Anderson Oliveira also part of the Brazil squad to the 2008 Olympic Games. Brazil ended the football event at the 2008 Olympic Games with the bronze medal afterbeating Belgium 3-0.